If there is one function whose performance is difficult to measure, it is Research and Development. Similarly, to set up processes, standards and rules to improve this performance.
Differences between design for manufacturing (DFM) and design for assembly (DFA)
Design for Manufacturing (DFM) is a design method to reduce the complexity of manufacturing operations and the overall cost of production including the cost of raw materials.
Design for Assembly (DFA) is a design method to facilitate or reduce the assembly operations of parts or components of a product.