OKR method, definition, process and templates
1. Background - Why was the OKR method developed?The OKR method was developed by Andrew Grove at Intel in the 1970s and was subsequently adopted by many technology companies, including Google, which made it widely popular.
At the time the OKR method was created, Management by Objectives (MBO), popularised by Peter Drucker in the 1950s, was the dominant approach to performance management. However, despite its advantages, MBO had its limitations, notably a sometimes excessive focus on individual objectives to the detriment of overall organisational objectives, and a complexity and slowness in the process of defining objectives.
The OKR method has introduced several innovations in relation to the MBO. Firstly, it emphasises the alignment of individual, team and organisational objectives, helping to ensure that everyone is working in the same direction. Secondly, it promotes faster and more agile definition of objectives, which are reviewed quarterly rather than annually. Finally, it introduces the idea of measurable key results to make progress towards objectives more visible and concrete.
2. Objectives and Key PrinciplesThe main objective of the OKR method is to create alignment and commitment around measurable and achievable results. It is based on a number of key principles:
- Alignment: The OKR definition encourages the alignment of objectives at all levels of the organisation, from management to individuals.
- Measurability: Each objective is associated with 2 to 5 measurable key results.
- Agility: Objectives and Key Results ( the OKRs) are generally defined and reviewed on a quarterly basis, allowing rapid responsiveness to change.
- Ambition: OKR targets should be ambitious and somewhat out of reach, to encourage innovation and continuous improvement.
3. Popularity of the OKR MethodSince their introduction at Intel and adoption by Google, the OKR method has been widely adopted by many organisations, particularly in the technology sector. According to a 2018 survey by management consultancy Detecon, around 40% of Fortune 1000 companies use the OKR Method.
4. Detailed descriptionSuccessful implementation of the OKR method requires a systematic approach and adoption at all levels of the organisation. Here are some important steps to consider.
4.1. PlanningThe first step is to define a clear vision of what the organisation wants to achieve in the long term. This will provide a framework for OKR development. Next, a timetable needs to be established for the OKR cycle. Most organisations use a quarterly cycle, but this can vary depending on the specific needs of the organisation.
4.2. OKR definitionThe OKR definition process should be participatory, involving members of the organisation at different levels. This fosters commitment to OKR. Objectives should be ambitious but realistic, and key results should be quantifiable. This step can be separated into two sub-steps.
4.2.1. Setting objectivesEvery OKR definition starts with an objective, which is a concise and inspiring description of what you want to achieve. It should be precise, easy to understand and aligned with the organisation's strategic objectives. For example, an objective for a sales department might be "Increase sales in the European market".
4.2.2. Defining key resultsFor each objective, you define 2 to 5 key results. These are specific measures that indicate whether the objective has been achieved. They must be quantitative, objective and difficult but not impossible to achieve. For example, for the objective mentioned above, the key results could be "Increase sales in Europe by 20%", "Achieve an 85% customer retention rate" and "Acquire 10 new major customers in the European market".
4.3. Defining action plansFor each objective, define the actions required to achieve the key results. For each objective, these actions are grouped together in a common Action Plan to ensure that they are consistent and well coordinated. Several action plans could be grouped together to form a complete Improvement Program.
4.3. Monitoring and evolutionProgress towards the OKR Objectives is monitored and reviewed regularly, usually on a weekly or monthly basis. At the end of each OKR period (generally a quarter), the OKRs are evaluated and new OKRs are defined for the following quarter. It is important to take time to reflect on what worked well, what didn't, and how to improve the process for next time. This may involve individual interviews, team reviews or anonymous surveys.
4.4. Alignment and communicationIt is important that everyone in the organisation understands the OKR definition and sees how their work contributes to achieving them. This requires clear and regular communication about the OKR definition and their progress. The OKRs should be accessible to everyone in the organisation, and there should be regular opportunities to discuss progress and challenges.
5. Tools and templates to support the OKR methodThere are a variety of tools available to help define and deploy the OKR method. Here are a few examples:
- Trello: Trello is a project management tool that can be used to define and monitor OKRs. You can create cards for each objective and sub-cards for each key result, and then track progress by moving the cards around the board.
- Asana: Asana is another project management tool that can be used for OKRs. It offers more features than Trello, including the ability to define dependencies between tasks.
- Weekdone: Weekdone is a specialist tool for tracking OKRs. It lets you define OKRs at different levels of the organisation with multiple OKR templates and link them together and track progress in real time.
- Koan: Koan is a performance management platform that offers comprehensive support for OKRs. This includes defining OKRs with specific OKR templates, monitoring progress and obtaining feedback on OKRs.
- Google Sheets/Excel: Spreadsheets remain a simple and flexible way of defining and tracking OKRs. You can create a spreadsheet structure that suits your needs, and use formulas to automatically calculate progress.
It should be noted that the choice of tool should be tailored to the specific needs of your organisation. Therefore, it is important to evaluate each tool to ensure that it offers the functionality you need to effectively manage your OKRs.
6. Benefits and limitations of the OKR definition
6.1. Benefits of the OKR definition
- Strategic alignment: One of the main benefits of the OKR definition is that it promotes strategic alignment at all levels of the organisation. By defining common objectives and making them visible to everyone, OKRs enable everyone in the organisation to understand how their work contributes to the overall objectives.
- Agility: The OKR method encourages a culture of agility and flexibility. As they are generally defined on a quarterly cycle, they can be adjusted in line with changes in the business environment.
- Accountability: The OKR method promotes accountability by linking objectives to results. This encourages employees to take responsibility for their results.
- Focus: By concentrating on a limited number of objectives, OKRs help to avoid dispersion of effort and maintain the emphasis on the most important areas.
6.2 Limitations of the OKR method
- Overload of objectives : Although the OKR method is intended to help organisations focus, there can be a temptation to set too many OKRs, which can dilute attention and resources.
- Complexity of implementation: The OKR method can be difficult to implement correctly. It can be difficult to define appropriate OKRs, to establish the right links between objectives and key results, and to monitor progress properly.
- Over-emphasis on quantitative targets: OKRs definition often focus on measurable quantitative results. This can lead to the neglect of important aspects that are more difficult to measure, such as quality, employee or customer satisfaction.
- The Stretch Goal Paradox: According to the Harvard Business Review article "The Stretch Goal Paradox", setting ambitious goals can have undesirable effects. If these goals are perceived as unattainable, they can have a demoralising effect on employees and lead to sub-par performance. This article suggests that ambitious targets are best used in situations where the organisation already has a high level of performance or is in need of radical change. In other situations, more moderate targets may be more effective.
7. Key success factors for defining and implementing OKRs successfullyTo successfully implement the OKR method in your organisation, a number of factors need to be taken into account. Here are some of the key success factors:
- Management commitment: Management commitment is essential to the effective implementation of the OKR (Objectives and Key Results) methodology. Management must not only understand and support the use of this methodology, but also actively participate in its application. They must clearly define and communicate their own OKRs, and set an example by aligning their OKRs with those of the company. It is through their commitment and example that managers succeed in establishing an OKR culture throughout the organisation.
- Transparent communication: The OKR methodology promotes transparent communication by encouraging the sharing of objectives and key results throughout the organisation. Each team member should have the opportunity to see each other's OKRs, to understand their priorities, challenges and contribution to achieving common goals. Transparency strengthens alignment, fosters collaboration and creates a culture of accountability.
- Simplicity: To be effective, OKRs must be simple and easy to understand. Each objective (O) should be concise, inspiring and action-oriented. Key Results (KR) should be measurable, limited in number (typically 2-5 per objective) and clearly aligned with the objective. Avoiding complexity helps to keep the focus on what is really important and makes OKRs easier to communicate and understand.
- Regular review: The OKR methodology requires a regular review of objectives and key results. This usually involves a quarterly review of the OKRs and a weekly or bi-weekly check-in to monitor progress. Regular reviews allow OKRs to be adjusted to reflect changes in the business context, problems to be identified early and successes to be celebrated.
- Teamwork: Implementing the OKR methodology should be seen as a real team effort. Although the definition of Objectives and Key Results is essentially a top-down process, it should be a collaborative one, involving all the parties concerned. Defining the actions to be taken to achieve these Key Results should be a team effort. This not only fosters a sense of ownership and commitment to OKR, but also a better understanding of everyone's roles and responsibilities. The idea is that everyone should feel a stakeholder and actively contribute to the shared success, thereby strengthening the team's alignment and cohesion around the common objectives.
8. ConclusionThe OKR method is a powerful tool for aligning objectives and measuring performance. Its results-oriented approach and flexibility make it attractive to many organisations. Despite its limitations, it has been widely adopted and has demonstrated its value in many organisations. With the right understanding and careful implementation, it can help foster a culture of alignment, clarity, transparency and continuous improvement.
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