The 5S is an approach that brings many benefits and is very well accepted by users. Nevertheless, as it is highly visible and changes the way many people work, its implementation must follow a rigorous process.
Reminder of the 5S definition and its benefits
The 5S is a cleaning and storage technique whose five letters mean:
- Seiri: Sort, separate the necessary from the unnecessary
- Seiton: Set in order
- Seiso: Shine, clean
- Seiketsu: Standardize
- Shitsuke: Sustain, self-discipline
These definitions are a representation of the meaning that these words convey in their use, and keeping the "S" as a mnemonic because their literal translation is slightly different.Benefits
The 5S method is actually much more than a cleaning technique. When it is used according to its true intentions, the benefits are multiple:
- cost reduction by eliminating unnecessary tools or parts (Seiri) or standardizing them (Seiketsu)
- simplifying work and increasing productivity by reducing search times (Seiton)
- prevention of breakdowns by inspecting tools or machines during cleaning (Seiso) and detecting any anomalies
- reduction of the risk of accidents, for example by avoiding the cluttering of parts, or places made slippery by oil stains
Implementation of 5S - A project approach
- The implementation of 5S is visible, requires time and resources and will change the working conditions of many people
- It therefore needs to be managed as a real change project with five fairly classic steps
The five steps of the project approach
Identify current problems, areas for improvement and associated issues in the different areas of the defined scope.
(Continue to) show the value of implementing the 5S: this objective is generally achieved by showing managers the results related to the first objective; it is essential to ensure support from management but also from middle management who may still be reluctant to implement an approach that could be perceived as additional'cleaning' tasks without much interest
2.Prépare the project
Define the objective of the project and its target: define the purpose of the approach and the level of challenge or expected savings
Select either the application areas and areas of improvement to be implemented: the project may well cover only part of the initial scope (e.g. some workshops and not others, production or maintenance...) or not seek to solve all the problems identified. Choose the pilot.
Define a planning, a project organization, a budget: define the implementation planning (what duration of pilot, what durations per zone or per type of improvement...), what will be the implementation team and the roles and responsibilities of each member, what monitoring mechanism, what is the necessary budget.
Train the first people, the project team and the staff of the pilot area.
Implement the 5S actions on the pilot (see details below).
Show savings: make the savings visible in order to show the interest of the process and motivate the team; check that the savings correspond to the initial estimated savings
Improve the method: the pilot is also used to test the implementation of the approach before deploying it in other areas.
Train the rest of the staff as their zones are deployed.
Integrate into the operational system: integrate the 5S into operational life, managerial follow-up and support functions; for example in team meetings, dashboards, training, etc.
Measuring and communicating savings: an essential step to continue to demonstrate the value of the approach, from operational to top management (who financed the approach)
- At the beginning, monitor the effective integration into operational modes on a regular basis
- Then, manage the 5S like any other operational mode, integrated into the operating modes... i.e. on a continuous basis with 5S performance indicators
Audit: set up an audit process
Implementation of the five "S" actions
The implementation of the five actions (Seiri: Sort; Seiton: Set in order; Seiso: Shine; Seiketsu: Standardise; Shitsuke: Sustain) is carried out for the pilot area and then for each of the areas of the deployment phase, with a preliminary preparation phase
The 5S can be used in different environments, in production plants or offices, so we use the word "element" which can be a part, tool, object or other depending on the environment.
The implementation uses the same method regardless of the environment.
Actions Implementation figure
Implementation of actions: Preparation
For each area where implementation applies, for the pilot or deployment
- (Re)explain to the person in charge of the area concerned the whole process; the site director must participate at least initially in this exchange to indicate the importance of the process
- Train staff
- Ensure that at least one person from the team responsible for the area concerned is involved in the work from start to finish
Implementation of actions: Sort
1.Prepare for temporary storage
- Take pictures of the target area before removing its elements
- Define a place to temporarily store the elements that will be removed
- Prepare colour-coded labels to remove’, 'maybe remove ‘, 'replace’, 'repair'.
Prepare handling equipment if necessary: box, trolley, pallet truck, etc.
2.Perform a first sorting
- Make one for the obvious elements, by moving the targeted elements into the storage area. If the handling equipment is not suitable for sorting 'immediately', put the labels remove ‘.
- During this action, put the labels "maybe remove" in case of doubt
- Put labels for the other categories that are obvious (it is optional at this stage, but it is a saving for the next steps)
- List the items put in this area for follow-up
3.Test and monitor
- Install the monitoring board; define and install a visual monitoring board in the target area with three categories:
- “Remove” with two columns :
- one to leave comments if some people think that shouldn’t be removed
- one for those who have taken back or used an element of the area to be removed
- “Remove maybe" with four columns:
- The list of elements with the “remove maybe" labels
- To be kept
- Comments on the report
- “Remove ideas" with two columns:
- one to write additional ideas for parts to be removed
- one to say why or add comments
- Give a week (or other depending on the organization) for people working on the area to comment, add parts to remove, or remove parts from the 'remove' list
- Review the board and the area 'to be removed' (if elements have been included) and lead a team meeting
- Review all categories and discuss the adjustment of lists and items to be removed
- Take the opportunity to make a first team tour and ask their opinion on the approach and results of this first step.
- Estimate the savings of the removed items (estimate the frequency and cost of purchase if they remain in the list of items used)
4.Finalise: discard the items to be removed
Implementation of actions: Set in order
1.Define storage areas
- Make a list of the elements to be stored for each sub-area (workshop, office, etc.) of the treated area
- For each element, ask the people who use them how often they are used (prepare columns day, week, month, month, quarter, year, never to facilitate work); note the subpart of the treated area
- Estimate the volume of parts for each periodicity with one detail per sub-area
- For each frequency, identify possible storage locations in the area using the following guidelines:
- The closer the storage place is to the place of use, the more frequently it is used: every day, next to the person; every week, in the surrounding area....
- The size of the site must be well dimensioned with more space than not enough (ease of search)
- Do not put the same type of element in two different places... but limit travel if two remote teams use the same elements
- Review why the two teams are distant; this can mean a redefinition of physical flows and workstations (a reason to deploy the 5S in a broader integrated Lean approach)
- Otherwise, it will be necessary to choose the best solution (to be discussed with the teams) between duplicating the tools or increasing the travel
- Involve teams in the choices
2.Define the location of each element within each area
- Collect the elements by search/use logic and according to specific constraints (safety, humidity...)
- Identify the necessary storage supports, standard (cabinet...) or to be manufactured (template...)
- prefer modular and flexible supports; one thing is for sure, there will be changes!
- If possible, do not purchase anything, or have any manufactured before the next test phase
- Further involve teams in the choices, especially for workstation elements
2.Test and monitor
- Define and implement monitoring means to obtain user feedback and start measuring the change (search and travel time, productivity...)
- It is easy to get feedback for daily use and there will be at least two weekly iterations but higher uses will be more random, so monitoring may need to be done later if the test phase is too long.
- Store each element in its place as defined and operate for at least two weeks.
4..Adjust and install the final supports
Implementation of actions: Shine
1.Do a thorough “reference” cleaning
- Take a picture of each area before cleaning
- Define cleaning and inspection instructions at the same time as cleaning:
- Cleaning instructions: frequencies, cleaning means, people who clean and specific instructions when necessary (disassembly, safety...)
- Inspection: In industrial (factory, warehouse, etc.) or technical (e. g. laboratory) environments, inspection is the greatest added value of cleaning because it helps to prevent breakdowns or work incidents
- Doing it at the same time will allow to test the instructions during the next cleaning.
- Take reference photos
- Photos of the result AND anomalies (if observed) for each area with details for critical elements.
- Add them to cleaning and inspection instructions or other procedures (e. g. self maintenance)
1.Test cleaning and inspection
- Review cleaning and inspection instructions with area managers and adjust if necessary
- Define and implement monitoring means to obtain user feedback
- Carry out the test, if possible at the same time as the "Sort" stage in order to pool monitoring resources and reduce the pilot's total time, unless this delays the test in the "Sort" stage too much
Implementation of actions: Standardise
This phase makes it possible to standardise the 5S approach but also provides an opportunity to detect the lack of standardisation in operating procedures (format, level of detail, content).
Inventory and Pilot Standardiz*sation
- Make an inventory of the different standards in terms of operating procedures in the different areas; select or define a standard format; this phase must begin before describing the storage and cleaning procedures
- Adjust the standard at the end of the pilot and ensure that all pilot documents or tools are standardised
- Possibly standardise the other procedures, "outside 5S".
- Each deployed area must apply the standards
- Nevertheless, adjustments can be made during deployment based on accumulated experience; continuous improvement begins
Implementation of actions: Sustain
Sustainability starting at the pilot phase
- The sustainability actions are already starting within the pilot since it is at this point that the results measurements begin
- At the end of the pilot, an assessment is made to adjust and complete the measurement system before deployment
Sustainability during deployment
- The 5S approach is integrated into the existing performance monitoring tools and operational ways of working of each deployed area: procedures, visual display, area indicators
- A progress dashboard of actions and results is consolidated as they are deployed
Sustainability after deployment
- Results monitoring indicators are integrated into the management dashboards
- An audit process is defined, with a faster frequency at the beginning